The Bounded Proper Forcing Axiom

by Goldstern and Shelah. [GoSh:507]
J Symbolic Logic, 1995
The bounded proper forcing axiom BPFA is the statement that for any family of aleph_1 many maximal antichains of a proper forcing notion, each of size aleph_1, there is a directed set meeting all these antichains. A regular cardinal kappa is called {Sigma}_1-reflecting, if for any regular cardinal chi, for all formulas phi, ``H(chi) models `phi ' '' implies ``exists delta < kappa, H(delta) models `phi ' '' We show that BPFA is equivalent to the statement that two nonisomorphic models of size aleph_1 cannot be made isomorphic by a proper forcing notion, and we show that the consistency strength of the bounded proper forcing axiom is exactly the existence of a Sigma_1-reflecting cardinal (which is less than the existence of a Mahlo cardinal). We also show that the question of the existence of isomorphisms between two structures can be reduced to the question of rigidity of a structure.

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